The first question is, what exactly should be understood as lifestyle diseases, in the broad sense of the word, this group can include almost any human disease from infectious to tumor, for the occurrence and development of any disease is usually affected by any of the factors that we unite. in lifestyle factors.
In fact, tuberculosis most often develops in people living in dilapidated damp housing, leading an antisocial lifestyle. Rheumatism often affects weakened people, veno-disease, as a rule, is the lot of people who have promiscuous sex life. Lung tumors develop much more often in smokers than in non-smokers. Breast cancer is more common in women who have not given birth, and cervical cancer, on the contrary, has given birth or has a lot of abortions.
However, for the development of the same tuberculosis or venereal disease, a very specific pathogen microorganism is needed, and in the absence of it all other conditions, including lifestyle factors, can act for as long as desired and any diseases will develop, but not tuberculosis or syphilis. At the same time, there are also diseases in the development of which lifestyle has a leading meaning. For example, obesity. In 95 cases out of 100, this is a direct consequence of either improper feeding or a reduction in energy expenditure. Hypertension in 60% of cases develops in overweight individuals. And the stresses that contribute to the manifestation of hypertension? Are they not determined by lifestyle? Type 2 diabetes mellitus also mainly develops in obesity. Among these patients, 70–85% are overweight and obese.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of death - a direct consequence of the violation of fat metabolism, and fat metabolism, and we will show this below, a direct consequence of the way of nutrition and physical activity.
Taking into account the above, it can be concluded that lifestyle plays a more or less important role in the occurrence and development of almost all diseases, but in some diseases the role of lifestyle becomes largely decisive and leading. In addition to the above obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes, padagru, metabolic dystrophic polyarthritis, osteochondrosis, gastric ulcer, spinal osteochondrosis, neuroses and disorders can be referred to as diseases in their development as directly associated with lifestyle. sexual sphere.
Until recently, these diseases were examined in different courses of medicine - obesity and diabetes - in the course of endocrinology, neurosis - in the course of nervous diseases or psychiatry, polyarthritis in the course of therapy, and peptic ulcer and stomach and duodenum - in the course of gastroenterology. However, such an approach diminishes the importance of lifestyle as the causes of these diseases, does not allow to consider them in unity and, accordingly, prevents the development and implementation of a set of corrective measures, the purpose of which is to prevent the development of these diseases and, if they have already developed, to treat them. In fact, if the lifestyle of a person is the direct cause of a disease, then its treatment should begin with the correction of the causal factors of lifestyle. In many cases, this is already sufficient to achieve remission. If not enough, then all subsequent treatment should be carried out against the background of adjusted lifestyle factors.
In fact, the approach to the treatment of these diseases, practiced until now, practically does not take into account a person’s lifestyle, or, to put it mildly, takes into account the insufficiently pathogenic role of lifestyle factors and is thus reduced to pharmacotherapy. In fact, take any guidance on treating the same hypertension. The first 6-7 lines are devoted to the wishes to normalize the way of nutrition, connect physical therapy, and normalize body weight. But all this is nothing more than wishes. Further, on several pages pharmacotherapy is painted with all the details. Such an approach orients the young doctor to pharmacotherapy, as the only possible one, or, to put it mildly, the main and main way of treatment. As a result, in many cases medications are prescribed without proper indications and, in any case, earlier than this should be done, and hence the increase in side effects associated with their use and, conversely, the lack of therapeutic effect and aggravation of the clinical picture of the disease. Example? You are welcome! Of the one hundred patients with type 2 diabetes in the United States, 60 cost only diet, 30 receive hypoglycemic pills and 10 - insulin. In Russia, the situation is the opposite. Only 20 patients are compensated with a diet, 70 receive tableted prepates and the same 10 - insulin. What it says. The fact that our doctors do not sufficiently take into account the importance of diet as a powerful therapeutic factor in type 2 diabetes.
Practice shows that many patients, following doctors, do not see much sense in the preventive and therapeutic action of correcting lifestyle factors, and if the doctor expresses a desire to lose weight or move more, the attitude to such wishes is no more than condescendingly ironic. Yes, it would be nice, but the patient will not do anything like this. Why? Yes, only because the doctor does not find the necessary arguments, does not give specific advice and does not insist on their observance.
The need to unite the above and seemingly such different diseases is also due to the fact that the pathogenic effect of lifestyle factors on the population of people, especially in economically developed countries, has recently increased. This is associated with a progressive deterioration of nutrition, with an increase in hypodynamia, with an increase in the stress of life. Since urbanization and the mechanization of production are the immediate causes of physical inactivity, refined nutrition with an increase in the proportion of animal fats in it is a phenomenon of the last 30-40 years, a value comparable to the lifespan of one generation, these diseases have become another name - diseases of the modern lifestyle.
The prevalence of these diseases is increasing. According to the most approximate estimates, the frequency of obesity in the population of economically developed countries is increasing by 7% per decade. If this trend continues, by the middle of the next century almost the entire population of economically developed countries will be overweight. Losses from the diseases of the modern lifestyle are becoming increasingly difficult, and treatment is becoming more expensive. The following figures are demonstrative. The cost of treating obesity-related diseases in the United States is estimated by scientists to be worth $ 42 billion a year. This represents 7% of total health expenditure.
What I have said above, I think, convinces you that traditional approaches to the treatment of lifestyle diseases without taking into account the effects of lifestyle factors and the moments of their correction can no longer suit us.
And so, to summarize.
Lifestyle diseases are diseases whose development is directly or causally related to the factors involved in a person’s lifestyle, and the correction of these factors makes it possible to achieve remission, or, in any case, improves their course and prognosis.
We list them again:
- Hypertonic disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Exchange-dystrophic polyarthritis
- Sexual disorders
- Peptic ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer
I think it is no longer necessary to repeat that the treatment of these diseases must necessarily include the correction of lifestyle factors. Prevention of these diseases should also be based on preventive correction of lifestyle.
Having defined the goal of our course to develop recommendations for the prevention and treatment of lifestyle diseases by correcting the lifestyle factors leading to their emergence and development, we must solve the following tasks: identify and characterize lifestyle factors that need correction show (analyze) their pathogenetic effect, identify mechanisms pathogenesis of lifestyle diseases
In the group of diseases of the lifestyle one could single out the group of diseases related to the lifestyle of the person most intimate. It can be argued that lifestyle almost determines their origin and development. These diseases are quite intimate and interconnected. That is, the presence of one of them dramatically increases the likelihood of the others developing.
Let's list them:
- Hypertonic disease
- Coronary heart disease
- Type 2 diabetes
Obesity takes a special place in this list. It can be argued that the remaining diseases from this mournful list are natural complications of obesity, that is, with its natural course, obesity rearranges metabolism in the body in such a way that against the background of these metabolic changes, the development of the above diseases becomes natural.
Let's give an example. Obesity naturally leads to an increase in blood levels of fat and cholesterol. Fats and cholesterol begin to be deposited in the walls of blood vessels, leading to the development of atherosclerosis, that is, narrowing of the lumen of the vessels (arteries) by cholesterol and lipid deposits. Atherosclerosis of the heart vessels (coronary arteries) disrupts the feeding of the heart muscle and leads to the development of coronary heart disease. The most formidable and severe manifestation of coronary heart disease is myocardial infarction. You see, the obesity began, myocardial infarction ended.
Similarly, we can consider the relationship between obesity and hypertension, as well as between obesity and diabetes.
So, obesity is the most significant risk factor for the development of the diseases listed above. This is a very important conclusion - if we learn how to prevent and treat obesity, we will learn how to prevent and treat atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes. And since these diseases significantly reduce life expectancy and degrade its quality, the result of our activity should be an increase in average life expectancy and an increase in the quality of life. Considering that the treatment of the diseases listed above costs a lot of money (in fact, in two cases out of three people over 50 years old go to doctors for exactly one of these diseases), our preventive activities will also save our society a lot of money.
In addition to obesity, there are at least two other factors that can independently cause the above mentioned diseases. Quite often, they cause obesity, accompany obesity and increase its pathogenic effect.
This is a large proportion of fat in the diet and a decrease in motor activity - hypodynamia. It would be possible to determine a number of factors contributing to the development of the diseases listed above, the so-called risk factors. Household intoxication - smoking, alcohol abuse, stress, hereditary factors. Of course, their presence makes the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and diabetes more likely. However, unlike the factor of overweight, overeating of fat and physical inactivity, they are not independent. Of course, prevention should also be aimed at eliminating these factors.
In a substantial simplification, the situation develops according to the following scenario. With the growth of overweight due to the accumulation of fat in fat cells, the size of the latter increases significantly. A situation arises in which, on the one hand, it becomes more and more difficult to put new portions of fat into these cells, and on the other hand, it becomes more and more difficult to keep this fat in them. As a result, increasing the concentration of fat in the blood. Fat and cholesterol are deposited in the vascular wall, which leads to the progression of atherosclerosis. Fat, as more available fuel, displaces glucose from oxidation processes. There is a tendency to increase the concentration of glucose in the blood. You know that an increase in glucose concentration above the norm happens only in one disease and this disease is called diabetes.
For some time, the body, due to increased insulin production, manages to keep glucose levels within the normal range, but after some time, the insular apparatus of the pancreas develops and diabetes mellitus develops. For a better understanding, let's clarify - diabetes mellitus is a complex, dangerous and dangerous disease, the main symptom of which is an increase in blood glucose levels. In principle, this can be observed in two cases. With a decrease in insulin production by the pancreas or with a decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin. Moreover, the second type of diabetes is observed more often, namely in 80-85 cases out of 100. In 8 cases out of 10 with type 2 diabetes, caused by a decrease in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, body weight is excessive and this has led to the development of diabetes.
Insulin, the level of which is always elevated in obesity, contributes to an increase in blood pressure. Hypertension in about 60% of cases is observed in patients with obesity and about 60% of hypertensive body weight is excessive.
Muscles account for at least 50% of body weight, provided that the weight of the person is normal. In the muscles, at least 70% of the fat and glucose entering the body is oxidized, of course, provided that the person is in the mode of optimal motor activity.
With limited motor activity, oxidation of substrates in the muscles is significantly reduced and then the situation develops according to the scenario already described by us.
Increased fat and cholesterol in the blood - the progression of atherosclerosis.
Increased insulin levels in the blood - arterial hypertension.
Finally, the depletion of the reserve capacity of the pancreas leads to the development of diabetes.
Nutrition is a necessary and necessary component of metabolism.
Structural function of nutrition
When feeding the body receives the components necessary for the construction of structures - cells and intercellular substance. Of course, the main role in the construction of structures belongs to the food protein. Our body builds virtually all its tissues from protein.
Protein consists of amino acids. Most of them can be synthesized by the body itself from glucose and fatty acids. But there are a few that he cannot synthesize. These are the so-called - essential amino acids. Their entry into the body is absolutely necessary, otherwise a deficiency of protein and a violation of regenerative processes in tissues develop.
Energy supply function
Food is a source of energy. The oxidation of 1 g of protein or carbohydrates in the body releases approximately 4 kcal of energy. When oxidizing 1 g of fat, 9 kcal of energy is released. It is essential that the body receives 90% of the required energy from fats and carbohydrates, and under normal conditions, carbohydrates are more preferable fuel, since the body spends less of its energy to extract energy from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the only fuel from which energy can be obtained even under aneobic conditions (the so-called aneobic glycolysis). Under normal conditions, some tissues can be fed only with glucose, in particular, central nervous system tissues, red blood cells, and fast glycolytic muscle fibers.
Directly to work, the body spends 20% of the released energy, the rest is spent in the form of heat. Proteins also participate in the energy function. It is estimated that about half of the protein consumed is used by the body to synthesize glucose (gluconeogenesis), which is then oxidized to release energy.
The heat-forming function ensures the maintenance of body temperature is almost always higher than the ambient temperature. The temperature of a person is approximately constant during the day (the temperature in the armpit varies from 36.3-36.7 ° C. This ensures optimal temperature conditions for the flow of internal redox processes
Carbohydrates and fats can be deposited from food. The protein depot in the body does not exist, however, with protein starvation, the body may expend structural proteins. The breakdown of structural proteins may increase if protein starvation is combined with carbohydrate. Carbohydrates, therefore, have a protein saving function.
The carbohydrate depot in the body is approximately 70 g of glycogen in the liver and 100 g in the muscles. For clarity, the same amount of carbohydrates is contained in 300 g of white bread (one third of a standard loaf). Thus, glycogen stores are few in number and the body, in order to maintain the balance of carbohydrates it is necessary to oxidize them first.
Another thing - fat depot. Normally, the body of a man contains about 10-12% fat, the body of a woman is up to 15 - 18%. However, the potential for adipose tissue to accumulate fat is enormous. So with obesity, the body may contain 40-50 kg or more of fat. A lot or a little. One kg of fat - 9000 calories. A woman spends 2200-2500 kcal during the day. That is, one kilogram should be enough for 4 days of fasting. And twenty kilos.
Daily energy expenditure is usually served from the energy eaten on this day of food. Fat is a strategic store of energy that a person carries with him.
In addition to the above, the food has a number of functions:
- Maintain a balance of vitamins
- Maintain mineral balance
- Maintain trace element balance
- Maintaining fiber balance
- Maintain intestinal microflora balance
So far we have talked about the biological or physiological functions of nutrition.
Man is a social being, and from these positions nutrition has a number of social functions. The function of communication, the function of self-affirmation, the function of entertainment and so on. And finally, food, as a factor, stabilizing the psycho-emotional state of a person.
A person eats mixed food, choosing products according to his wishes, habits, upbringing. In addition to nutrients with a person a person gets pleasure. The food is pleasant. It should be noted that the motives for choosing certain dishes are currently not established. On some hypotheses devoted to this issue, we can stop here.
According to the model ... food intake, or hunger signal occurs when the blood glucose and glycogen in the depot (in the liver and muscles) decrease. It has been established that the ventro-medial and ventrolateral nuclei of the hypothalamus take part in the reception of the hunger signal. (interaction scheme)
Recently it has been established that a number of neurotransmitters take part in the formation of a feeling of satiety and hunger. That is, special substances produced in the nerve synapses and involved in the transmission of excitation from one nerve cell to another.
Catecholamines - adrenaline and norepinephrine. It is known that with an increase in their level or activity in the central nervous system, the feeling of hunger suppresses serotonin - when it decreases in the brain structures that are in charge of eating behavior - there is a feeling of hunger, with an increase - a feeling of fullness.
The so-called endorphins, substances produced by the body and similar in structure and function to opiates, take part in the regulation of eating behavior.
Taking into account the considerations expressed above, we can conclude that nutrition is an absolutely necessary factor in maintaining normal metabolism and psycho-emotional homeostasis.
Modern nutrition is characterized by the following points:
- High fat content in food
- Relatively high content of easily digestible carbohydrates (starch and sugars)
- Low fiber content
- Lack of a number of vitamins
- Household intoxication
Chinese wisdom says: “If you are sick, change your diet, if you don’t help, change your lifestyle. If this does not help, go to the doctor. ”
Health is one of the few unconditional values that people have. This value is paid for by many personal and public acquisitions. At the end of the 20th century, our country faced an unprecedented increase in the death rate of the population. The main causes of death were circulatory diseases (first place among the causes of death), malignant neoplasms (second place), injuries and poisoning (3rd place), and respiratory diseases.
Life expectancy for men in Russia is 7–10 years shorter, women for 5–7 years compared with Western European countries. Premature mortality, chronic diseases and disabilities have resulted in severe economic consequences for the family and society. Of course, the health of the population depends not only on the organization of medical care, but also on social and economic well-being.
To a large extent, life expectancy depends on the individual characteristics of behavior, his passions and habits, temperament, performance, volitional qualities, intellectual, spiritual and cultural development, including personal attitudes.
Model of factors of health condition of the population, proposed by Academician of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Lisitsin Yu.P. and adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the “health formula”. People's lifestyle accounts for 55% of cases, environmental factors (ecology) - 20%, genetic factor (heredity) - 15%, the state of medical care (health service) - 10%. This suggests that in itself the adequacy of funding and the general availability of medical care is not yet a guarantee for improving the level of public health. Medicine and health care should clearly represent, why health depends and what possibilities of our influence. Unfortunately, most evidence of the effectiveness of medical interventions that we have is obtained from foreign studies.
During the Second World War, most people in European countries were forced to switch from the usual diet of meat and dairy products to a more strict vegetable diet. As a result, there was a sharp decrease in the number of diseases with atherosclerosis and heart attack, diabetes, gallstone disease, as well as cancer and arthritis. This decrease in incidence continued for another 20 years.
One of the important discoveries of medicine of the 20th century is that lifestyle diseases are identified.
The quality of medical care is constantly improving, and we can be proud of the achievements in this area, and there is still a lot of discovery ahead. Amazing advances in diagnostic technology. Now you can see, measure, study the work of various organs of the body, and even trace the process of thinking and expressing emotions. Molecular biology and genetics open up directions for new research. But modern epidemiology - the science of distinguishing diseases in populations - reveals another mystery. Most of modern killer diseases are related to lifestyle. These are mainly diseases of abundance: excessive eating and drinking, smoking and insufficient physical exertion. Medical science is struggling with the symptoms, but it's time to pay attention to the causes.
Diseases associated with atherosclerosis were virtually unknown until the beginning of the 20th century. Today, coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications are the cause of almost every other death.
Breast, intestinal, prostate and lung cancers were virtually unknown. Today, every fifth dies of cancer. The number of people with diabetes is increasing. And the complications caused by it are one of the most frequent causes of death.
The solution of most problems related to health today depends not only on doctors, the quality of medical care or technical progress. Our health is mainly determined by lifestyle, heredity and environment.
But no medicine can make a person healthy unless he himself strives for it. Another great Cervantes wrote: "And the best medicine will not help the patient if he refuses to take it."
Permanent negative turns into a persistent and destructive depression and as a result of various ailments. What to say, many of us: I ate, slept, spent hours watching TV, plus alcohol and tobacco ... So we have, we have. Now it is fashionable to be rich, but it’s prestigious to become healthy. And we must begin with the family.
It is well known that the main risk factors for chronic diseases are associated with human behavioral habits (unbalanced diet, abuse of foods high in cholesterol, sugar, salt, low physical activity, smoking, alcohol abuse, chronic stress).
The results of the study of young families showed that only 1% of them led a relatively healthy lifestyle, and their children did not identify these risk factors. But in the remaining 99% of families, there was not one, but a combination of several factors. More than 60% of families identified more than four factors. From the lifestyle directly depends on the health of each person.
Lifestyle summarizes, incorporates 4 categories. Economic - “standard of living”, sociological - “quality of life”, socio-psychological - “lifestyle” and socio-economic - “lifestyle”.
Scientists believe that the structure of health measures for Russians should be 20% of the efforts to improve the standard of living and 80% of the quality of life (in family, social, industrial, spiritual and other aspects).
WHO believes that in order to preserve public health, several rules must be observed:
- Avoid overeating;
- Do not abuse alcohol;
- Do not smoke;
- Not to use narcotic drugs;
- Follow safety rules when driving;
- To remember safe sex;
- Lead an active lifestyle (physical activity);
- If you experience symptoms of ill health, contact your doctor.
Motor activity and health
Did you know. What movement brings our body, besides benefits, great pleasure? Our body is fully adapted to move (and not move). No wonder they say: "Jumping for joy." The need for movement is peculiar to people of all ages. The greatest need is for schoolchildren. Unfortunately, physical inactivity - reduced physical activity - has become a disease of the century.
Movement is an integral part of human existence. However, our lifestyle often does not satisfy the needs of the body in motion, and as a result of this, its functions are disturbed, diseases develop, and overweight appears. osteoporosis. cardiovascular and respiratory systems are particularly affected. Children grow sluggish, do not play outdoor games. Physical inferiority reflects badly on their character. Fat, sedentary children communicate less with their friends, become withdrawn. That is, without exaggeration, we can say that the movement is just as necessary for the normal growth and development of a young organism, as is the reception, of food. A variety of movements. especially in the open air. necessary for the life of students. Even short-term physical exercises provide invaluable health service.
Physical training is a powerful weapon in the fight against aging, they counteract the processes that cause your body to become decrepit.
Let's move - now you have an understanding of what it is for. And let them first have to force themselves - the main thing is to wait for the moment when the habit is developed. After all, is there a habit of brushing your teeth? That same habit should be physical activity. Just before the start, be sure to consult your doctor.
Remember that even if you are bedridden, this is not a reason to refuse exercise. In addition to active exercises, there are also passive ones: those who are caring for you will help you perform them.
What exercise is best? People who do not have chronic diseases are recommended aerobic exercise. Load that does not cause severe fatigue: walking, running. swimming, easy charging. Move slowly and smoothly, try to use all parts of the body. If you are tired or do not feel very well, stop exercising.
Remember that in old and old age, physical training should be started very carefully and gradually, for example, from walking. If you have chronic diseases, limit yourself to a light aerobic load: hiking, slow swimming, slow cycling. It is better to begin physical exercises with burdens (anaerobic loads) after consulting a doctor.
How much exercise is needed? The minimum amount of physical activity for a person of any age - 5 times a week for 30 minutes of exercise per day. Best in the middle of the class to do a break for 5 minutes. The level of permissible loads for you will prompt the attending physician. The general rule is the following: during exercise you should have a feeling of slight tension, and after their completion - slight fatigue, but not fatigue.
For the first classes, choose not the most difficult exercises. Gradually, as your body becomes more and more trained, the load can be increased. Cut it. if you do not get well.
Do not overwork very important. Each has its own optimal load. Need to focus on the pulse rate. It is recommended to count your pulse before the start (at rest) and during the session. A permissible increase in heart rate is no more than 70% (for example, if before training your pulse was 70 per minute, during training it should not exceed 120). Excessive physical activity can adversely affect an elderly person and cause serious complications: heart rhythm disturbances, hypertensive crises, angina pectoris and heart failure, disorders of cerebral circulation and even sudden death. In any case, consult your doctor before starting classes.
Try to plan your day so that exercise is an integral part of it. Go to the shops on foot, walk before bedtime. Turn exercise from an unpleasant duty into a good habit!
Following the recommendations of the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, you can calculate the normal weight and try to stick to it. Your weight in kilograms must be divided by your height in meters squared. The result is a coefficient - body mass index. For people under the age of 30, it should be 20-25 (for young people - a valid value of 18). For the average age (up to 50 years) the norm is up to 27, and for pensioners - 28-29. Excess of this value indicates overweight. And 30 - already obesity.
But the structure of nutrition, its balance is very important. The ratio of food groups can be represented as a pyramid of healthy eating. The basis is cereal products, higher in the pyramid are vegetables and fruits, then dairy and meat products. At the top is what you can do without: sugar and fat.
It is believed that we consume too much bread, potatoes, cereals, this becomes fat and unhealthy. But the fact is that all this food is usually consumed with butter. Bread itself is a healthy, normal product, as well as a variety of muesli, flakes, sticks, bread.
Vegetables and fruits should be on the table every day, the most useful yellow-orange, yellow-red, dark green. With them we get vitamins, dietary fiber, so necessary for good digestion. They both bring out cholesterol and give energy.
In a smaller amount, the body requires milk and meat.
To the meat can be equated and legumes. Since they are rich in plant, easily digestible proteins, sometimes they can replace it.
On a par with meat - fish. It contains polyunsaturated acids and substances that are not found in vegetable oils. Therefore, fish is needed at least twice a week, like poultry and eggs.
Fat and sugar, the top of the pyramid, must be limited, because these are only sources of calories. In order to provide the body with fats, 1 -2 tablespoons of vegetable oil per day is enough.
It is necessary to limit the salt, but absolutely not without it. But it is possible to refuse sugar. In any grain product there is starch, when digested, it will turn into sugar, and this is enough for the body.
Today, fasting has become fashionable. Experts have come to the conclusion that it can only be used as a method of treatment. Some diseases - skin, allergic, immunological - can be stopped by food deprivation. But as a way of some recovery, this is hardly advisable. Such sharp throws are more harmful for the body than useful.
All business in calories
With obesity, the energy balance is disturbed: energy intake with food exceeds body costs Obese people are three times more susceptible to heart disease, they have four times more high blood pressure, five times more likely to get diabetes and increase blood cholesterol cancer of the large intestine, rectum, breast cancer They suffer more from arthritis and sciatica. Now appearance is of great importance, those extra pounds can cause serious psychological pain.
The style of eating behavior primarily depends on two blocks - constitutional (heredity, conditions of intrauterine development) and educational (national traditions, family habits, education, personality traits). But we eat not only to replenish energy, but also to get pleasure and aesthetic pleasure. This determines eating disorders, for example, night food syndrome, when people don’t want to eat in the morning, but the closer to evening, the stronger the appetite awakens. Another type is “food binge.” However, they should not be confused with the symptoms that occur with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
It's all about calories. Whether they are taken from the processing of fats or proteins, sugar or starch - everything that is left turns into fat. Part of it enters the blood, depositing on the walls of blood vessels and gradually narrowing the arteries. The rest is deposited in the central "fat bank", especially around the waist. Every three and a half thousand extra calories received by the body are deposited as 450 grams of fat.
Treatment includes three components: a change in eating behavior, psycho- and pharmacotherapy.
Four principles of nutrition can help control weight:
- More natural products that are low in sugar, salt and fat. Foods high in carbohydrates, fiber (vegetables, fruits, legumes, wholemeal flour) can eat more and still lose weight. This is good news for those who think that keeping a figure is possible only with serious malnutrition;
- The rate of burning of calories in the body increases with vigorous physical activity: 30-60 minutes of daily exercise;
- Reduce the amount of refined and processed foods;
- Try not to abuse animal products. They do not have fiber and too much fat.
Change your lifestyle - change your look.
Hundreds of thousands of people die every year from a heart attack. And the reason for this is atherosclerosis. People are born with clean elastic arteries that must remain so for life. But for many people, the arteries are clogged with cholesterol, fats and calcium. This mixture gradually leads to the compaction of the walls of blood vessels and ultimately to the complete blocking of the paths of intake of the necessary oxygen.
Unfortunately, any manifestations of this disease are usually not observed until a clot forms in the arteries. For most people, a heart attack is the first manifestation of the disease.
To determine the likelihood of coronary vascular disease, it is necessary to identify risk factors. The most serious risk factor is high blood cholesterol. Men aged 50 years. in which the cholesterol level is more than 7.6 mmol / l. ten times more at risk of atherosclerosis than men of the same age with a normal cholesterol level of less than 5.1 mmol / l. Reducing the level of cholesterol in the blood by 20% to 50% reduces the likelihood of a disease of the coronary vessels.
By the age of 60, smokers are 10 times more likely to die from heart disease than non-smokers. About 30% of the total number of deaths per year from coronary vascular disease are directly related to smoking.
In developed countries, every third adult has high blood pressure. This 3 times increases the risk of dying from heart disease compared to a person with a normal level of blood pressure.
Overweight men are 5 times more likely to die of heart disease by the age of 60 than normal weight men.
Other risk factors include diabetes, high blood triglycerides, a sedentary lifestyle, stress, and alcohol abuse. Fortunately, all of the above risk factors can be controlled by changing your diet and lifestyle. Five of the eight controlled risk factors depend heavily on diet. With such risk factors as heredity, age and gender, a person, alas. unable to do anything.
People with dangerous levels of cholesterol in the blood, which cannot be reduced with the help of a diet, may need medications. However, the cost of drugs is high enough. In addition, most of them have pronounced side effects. They must be taken under the supervision of a physician and with frequent laboratory tests.
Surgical operations seemed to be more attractive: coronary artery bypass surgery (creation of new bypass routes by transplanting a vessel taken from another area of the body, usually the legs), smoothing the vessel walls by introducing an inflatable balloon; direct removal of plaques from the walls after opening the vessel.
However, over time and as data accumulates, it becomes clear that most of the operational impacts do not always improve the quality of life. Drug treatment gives a temporary effect, at best. A reliable only solution to the problem is a radical change in one's lifestyle: Reduce blood cholesterol levels below 5 mmol / l with a vegetarian diet that is very low in fat and high in fiber, and if necessary, also use cholesterol-lowering medicines.
- Reduce the weight by eating foods in its natural form and a smaller amount of refined food and animal products.
- Reduce salt intake to 5g (1 tsp) per day and daily physical exercise will help reduce blood pressure.
- Give up cigarettes and reduce the use of alcohol, which hurts a sick heart.
Every third adult Russian has high blood pressure (BP). Hypertensive patients are three times more likely to develop myocardial infarction, five times more likely to develop heart failure and 8 times more likely to have a stroke than people with normal blood pressure.
Hypertension is when the systolic blood pressure (upper digit) is constantly kept above 140 mmHg. and / or diastole and garlic (lower figure) at the level of 90 mm Hg. and higher. (The optimal pressure is 120/80 mm Hg). And although such conditions may be asymptomatic (hence the name "invisible disease"), they cause progressive changes in the blood vessels, leading to serious manifestations of the disease, hypertensive crises, stroke or heart attack.
The cause of increased blood pressure can be various diseases of the kidneys, endocrine glands or some other organs, in these cases they are called symptomatic or secondary hypertension. But in 90% of cases, it is not possible to establish a specific organic reason for an increase in blood pressure. This form of the disease is called primary hypertension or hypertension. The following factors contribute to primary hypertension:
eating large amounts of salt. There. where they consume a lot of salt, for example, in Japan, hypertension affects half the adult population. Americans consume an average of 10 to 20 grams of salt per day, i.e. from 2 to 4 teaspoons, which is almost 2-4 times the recommended amount (up to 5 g per day). This situation is not the best in Russia, in connection with the taste and culinary tastes of our citizens.
Overweight. Almost everyone with significant overweight will eventually become hypertensive. It is only a matter of time. Agerosclerotic plaques in the arteries. If the course of the arteries is narrowed due to the presence of plaques, then the body is forced to raise blood pressure to ensure the passage of blood, and with it oxygen and nutrients to the cells.
Sedentary lifestyle. Smoking
Estrogen This hormone, found in birth control pills and used to relieve menopause symptoms, also has the ability to retain salt in the body, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure due to the accumulation of excess fluid in humans. Alcohol. Scientific studies have shown that between 5 and 15% of hypertension cases are associated with alcohol abuse.
In real life it is very difficult to avoid salt. About 75% of the salt comes from the prepared food, as well as processed products (chips, soup in sachets, etc.). It is easy to get into the habit of eating salty foods, and a variety of salty foods and snacks are ready to satisfy your appetite. Recently, a lot of new drugs have been created. effectively reducing blood pressure. Most give the quickest solution to the problem we all crave.
But a closer look at drugs for hypertension reveals some facts of concern. The fact is that these drugs do not always cure hypertension, they only reduce high blood pressure. In many cases, the patient is forced to take them until the end of life. They bring troubles and side effects: feeling tired, depressed, reducing potency, etc.
A number of extensive medical studies have shown that simple nutritional and lifestyle changes can reverse most cases of primary hypertension in a few weeks without any medication. Again: this is a restriction on salt intake. A diet low in fiber and high in fiber helps reduce blood pressure by about 10%. A large amount of fresh unrefined foods automatically reduces the sodium and fat content of food; you get enough potassium to protect your body.
Elimination of alcohol and exercise is very effective - it contributes to the expansion of the peripheral arteries.
Be prudent! People taking medications for hypertension should not act as if they know more than a doctor, you should not change the dose of medication at your discretion.
Those who want to make changes in their lifestyle that promote health in the fight against hypertension, usually find the support of the attending physician.
Millions of people are paralyzed due to stroke. After AIDS and cancer, stroke is the most frightening and crippling human disease of modern civilization. Stroke - a condition in which as a result of cessation of blood flow to the brain due to blockage of an artery (ischemic stroke) or discharge of blood through the damaged vessel wall (hemorrhagic stroke), brain cells are damaged or died.
Every year in the world a stroke leads to the death of almost 5 million people. After the first stroke, only 20% of patients return to full-fledged life. Most remain disabled, in need of long-term treatment and care. Every 5th patient develops a second stroke in the next 2 years. As a rule, each subsequent stroke makes it worse violations. Stroke can rightly be called the "epidemic of the century."
In order to avoid serious illness, you need to know if you have risk factors:
- High blood pressure. People with high blood pressure are 8 times more likely to have a stroke than people with normal blood pressure.
- Diabetes. Bring your weight back to normal. Obesity contributes to most types of diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension.
- Elevated cholesterol. Eat a low-fat, high-fiber diet.
- Addiction to alcohol.
- Smoking. Every 6th death from acute violation of cerebral circulation is directly related to smoking.
- Hypodynamia. Exercise regularly. It improves blood circulation and helps control weight and hypertension.
- Long-term stress and lack of positive emotions.
- Oral contraceptive use.
- Elderly age.
- The presence of strokes in the next of kin.
- The combination of two or more factors significantly increases the incidence of stroke! If you have at least one of the above factors, proceed immediately to prevention. For this you need:
- Fight increased blood pressure with the recommendations of the attending physician (the probability of a stroke is reduced by 2 times).
- Monitor diabetes (strictly under the supervision of an endocrinologist).
- To improve the work of the heart (antiarrhythmic drugs and drugs to enhance the power of the heart muscle).
- Reduce blood cholesterol (vegetable fats, vegetables, fruits, seafood, drugs).
- Prevent the formation of blood clots inside the heart and blood vessels with the help of drugs recommended by the attending physician.
- Completely stop smoking (cigarettes, cigars and pipes are equally dangerous).
- Limit alcohol intake (not more than 200g of strong drinks per week).
- Fight hypodynamia (30-minute daily dynamic load is sufficient - intense walking, jogging, cycling and skiing, swimming).
- Periodic courses to take drugs that improve cerebral circulation, increase metabolism in nerve cells and protect them from oxygen deficiency and the damaging effects of free radicals.
Each is born with soft, flexible, resilient artery walls. In many nations of the world, arteries remain healthy throughout their lives and blood pressure is normal. They are not afraid of the terrible consequences of strokes. And to you too, if you seriously adhere to a healthy lifestyle even before your health is seriously damaged.
Diabetes (sweet disease)
Today, 2 million Russians suffer from diabetes, incl. 1 million 700 thousand type 2. If current trends persist, then children who are now born will have one in five chances of becoming a diabetic throughout their lives. These calculations forced medical professionals to reconsider their attitude to diabetes. Now it is considered not so much a disease, as a feature of metabolism, which dictates a certain lifestyle. But if you have this diagnosis, do not give up. By learning how to control your condition with medication, diet, and proper behavior, you will be able to lead the same full life as all other people.
What is diabetes? Diabetes occurs when the body loses its ability to regulate glucose in the blood, which rises to dangerous levels. When the blood sugar test shows that after eight hours of food abstinence, the level of glucose in the blood is more than 7.0 mmol / l. The diagnosis is diabetes. When the glucose level is 6.1 - 6.9 mmol / l, they say that the person "decreases glucose tolerance," which is usually preceded by diabetes.
Doctors divided the disease into 2 types: the first - insulin-dependent or youthful (occurs in 5% of diabetics), and the second - non-insulin-dependent, or diabetes of mature people (occurs in more than 90% of cases of disease). The classic symptoms are excessive thirst, excessive appetite, excessive urination. But at the beginning of the disease, the symptoms are hardly noticeable: just more frequent urination and thirst can be observed.
While progressing, the disease affects all organs and gradually destroys them. First of all, there are problems with vision, kidneys, the development of atherosclerosis and gangrene (half of all amputations of the lower extremities in adults occurs for this reason). This risk carries with it ignorance or lack of control over the disease. The earlier a diagnosis is made, the greater the result will be given by lifestyle changes. Risk factors for diabetes include:
Overeating and irregular meals. Sharp and unpredictable changes in blood glucose levels "break" the physiological schedule of the pancreas and deplete insulin reserves, create favorable conditions for diabetes. The body gives us 2 signals of hunger. The first call comes from the vacated stomach, when the last portion of the food digested in it passed into the intestine, approximately every 3-3.5 hours. Sitting at the table at the first signal of hunger, while the body still has a supply of nutrients, you will eat a small portion (when filling the stomach, the reflex "turning off" appetite works). Such a diet eliminates overeating and to some extent protects against diabetes. If you suppress the first episode of appetite, this feeling disappears, and with time it stops altogether. The body notifies of the need to have a bite right away with the second ring coming from the “hungry” blood, when there is nothing left in it to support the weakening forces. They will wave it off, this signal will no longer succeed, it is very stable and disappears only 2-3 hours after the meal, when a sufficient amount of nutrients passes into the blood. Since the signal of the overflowing stomach is weaker than the call of the “hungry” blood, you lose the sense of proportion, and each meal turns into a feast of the stomach. Evening is a legitimate time for the pancreas to rest. Forcing her to work overtime, you deplete your insulin and create favorable conditions for diabetes.
Refined sugar. The habit of sweetening everything that can not be salted is a direct path to the disease.
Overweight. Like an insulation coating on electrical wiring, adipose tissue blocks the action of insulin, it cannot make its way to the cell receptors.
To break the blockade, the pancreas begins to produce more and more hormone, the amount of which is growing, but does not reach the goals. As a result, the hormone pipeline is depleted and can no longer produce as much insulin as the body needs. For those who follow the figure, sweet ailment occurs 12 times less.
Playing on the nerves. Bitter resentment or unintentional joy, increase the content of glucose in the blood, and deep stress can cause another sign of diabetes - the excretion of sugar in the urine. The insular apparatus of the pancreas in such a situation is constantly tense - over time, it can exhaust its reserves and capitulate to diabetes.
Harmful habits. Alcohol quickly penetrates the cells of the pancreas, initially increasing insulin production. The level of glucose in the blood falls, it becomes "hungry" and stimulates the appearance of appetite, even on a full stomach. Repetition and overeating will eventually deplete pancreatic function.
Disease can be prevented. The secret is to reduce the amount of fat in food and the body. Eat more natural foods that are rich in fiber, cooked simply, with a small amount of fat and sugar. Vigorously move every day. Two half-hour walks daily will help to convert excess glucose in the blood into fatty acids.
Diseases of the joints
Arthritis is a generic term for the definition of diseases and inflammatory processes occurring in joints. Many people suffer from some form of arthritis. Our joints and ligaments wear out under load and constantly need recovery. Recovery of any part of the body requires free access of oxygen and other nutrients.
One of the most common diseases of the joints is "osteoarthritis" (OA). clinical symptoms of which are generally observed in more than 10-20% of the world's population. Abroad, this pathology refers to "osteoarthritis." This underlines the important role of the inflammatory component in the development and progression of the disease.
The main suspected factor in the development of the disease is the discrepancy between the mechanical load on the articular surface and its ability to resist this load. As a result, we can conditionally identify 3 main groups of causes of OA:
- Genetic: female gender, congenital diseases of bones and joints;
- acquired: advanced age, overweight, estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women (and, probably, vitamin D deficiency), joint surgery:
- environmental factors: excessive load on the joints, injuries, etc.
Also to the development of OA can lead: endocrine pathology (diabetes, hypo-and hyperthyroidism. Diseases of the parathyroid glands, physical inactivity).
The basis of OA is a lesion of cartilage tissue. The most common symptoms of OA are pain and limited mobility of the joints.
It affects a huge number of people with back pain. Surprisingly, in almost 80% of people who have a backache, this happens because of muscles that work too little or work too hard. A tense muscle may suddenly contract or spasm, signaling an acute pain in the body. Another 10% of the problems with the back can be caused by OA or a malfunction in the intervertebral cartilage, and only a few of those. who suffer from back pain, are seriously injured.
Before doing anything for back pain, it is important to determine if any damage is the cause. Without visible serious problems, the most important thing is not to do what you want most, for example, get settled on a soft sofa.
After an injury or an attack of pain, you can relax for 1-2 days, using muscle relaxation medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed by a doctor. Then it's time to get to your feet and start walking. Orthopedists say that prolonged bed rest will do more harm than good, as this causes the muscles to quickly weaken.
Another disease that is associated with lifestyle is gout. It includes some metabolic disorders. When too much nutritious, fatty foods and too low physical activity. But it is also known that this disease can be controlled by a simple diet, with the exception of harmful substances, which appear mainly mainly in the breakdown of animal protein and normalization of weight.
Another of the most common diseases of the joints is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is an autoimmune disease that differs from OA in that. what appears as a result of inflammation of the membranes of the joints and is accompanied by redness, swelling, a higher temperature, and not damage or overstrain.
It has long been known that RA is closely related to the body’s immune system. Some complexes of the immune protein in the joints play a key role in the apparent destruction of cartilage. We now know that these protein antigens can be absorbed completely from the small intestine without digestion, thus creating a problem. The best long-lasting result is observed in patients who switch to a strict vegetarian diet. This is not surprising, since milk and eggs are the most common causes of food allergies. Studies have shown that, for example, during the digestion of cow's milk alone, more than 100 antigens can be released.
Despite the many different forms of arthritis, there are some general principles that are effective in most cases:
- Normalization of weight - this is perhaps the most important. Each extra 500g of weight increases the wear of the joints, which account for the brunt of the thigh, knees, and spine.
- It was observed that a simple diet low in fat and high in fiber improves blood circulation in the joints. Over time, thanks to this diet, it is possible that some narrowed arteries will expand.
- Regular exercise, at least 5 times a week, supports muscle strength. Loose muscles do not protect the joints as necessary. When joints ache, the ideal thing is to go swimming and water aerobics.
- Use the affected joints only as part of their blood supply. It is very important to prevent chronic disability from resting during an exacerbation, then very quickly returning to physical activity.
- Medications such as analgesics, muscle relaxants and anti-inflammatory drugs may help, especially during the exacerbation period. Steroid therapy can lead to a dramatic improvement, but with prolonged use it does more harm than good.
- If the destruction of the joints has already gone quite far, you may need to replace it with an artificial one.
Fight for your health, be active. People who are recovering are those who play an active role in positive, constant changes in their lifestyle.
Osteoporosis (literally - porous bones) imperceptibly and painlessly weakens bones. They gradually become thin, fragile, soft and similar inside a sponge. As a result, the bones break. Osteoporosis can cause many fractures, make a person cripple, and even lead to death. On the other hand, a spinal fracture often does not cause pain, but reduces the growth of the victim by 5-20 centimeters. There is a curvature, leading to senile hunger.
Normally, our bones become stronger and thicker to 35 years. Then, gradually, the process becomes reversed. Calcium loss is particularly accelerated in women after menopause and can last from 7 to 12 years.
Although the disease is considered characteristic of older women, every fifth of its victims is a member of the stronger sex.
Without medical help, determine if you have osteoporosis. impossible until a fracture occurs.
For accurate diagnosis of the patient is sent to the den-sitometry, which determines the bone mineral density. In Kursk, such equipment operates in the regional clinical hospital. It will determine the speed of bone threshing (bone crumbling process), the level of calcium and phosphorus in the blood and urine in the dynamics.
Who should be examined? If you are a middle-aged person and have two or more of the following factors: a sedentary lifestyle, early menopause, constant use of corticosteroids, smoking, alcohol and coffee, eating foods high in animal protein, salt and phosphoric acid.
Osteoporosis is a rather complicated disease, mainly associated with nutrition and lifestyle. Most people consume an average of 400 mg of calcium per day without any manifestations of this pathology. The body spends calcium, processing animal proteins, salt and caffeine. When calcium is not enough in food, the trace element is “borrowed” from other sources, in particular, from bones.
Calcium is found in dairy products, cabbage, beets, nuts. Vitamin D contributes to its absorption. Therefore, include sea fish and mushrooms in the diet.
Well, and of course, we need a feasible motor mode. The ancient postulate: “If you want to live, be constantly in motion” has been repeatedly confirmed by modern medicine. To maintain mobility until old age, you need to be in motion, be sure to be in the fresh air at any time of the year.
In the West in recent years, dances have been actively promoted as an effective means of preventing osteoporosis. For older people, special dance classes are open to help train the cardiovascular system and the vestibular apparatus, and it is great to relax psychologically.
And stop smoking - it will bring a very big benefit to your bones.
It turns out that we incur many types of malignant diseases on ourselves. We contribute to this by constantly exposing ourselves to certain environmental factors. Whether we replenish the ranks of cancer patients depends largely on what we eat and drink, where we live and work, and what we breathe.
Medicine continues to make great strides in the early detection and improvement of treatments for many types of cancer. Unfortunately, all this is done after the "thunder struck." The overall mortality rate as a result of tumor diseases continues to grow steadily - this is the sad truth. Cancer today takes the lives of 300 thousand Russians annually.
However, this can be changed! If only people decided on some simple changes in their lifestyle, 70 to 80% of cancer cases could be prevented.
Of all the cancers, most people die from lung cancer. Since 1964, when surgeons made a report, it became known that lung cancer is directly related to smoking. Millions of people quit this addiction, but most still continue to smoke. Almost 90% of cases of cancer of the lungs, lips, mouth. throat and esophagus can be prevented if people stop smoking. In the same way, half of the bladder tumors can be avoided.
In men, the following places in the incidence of the disease are cancer of the stomach, skin and prostate gland, in women - tumors of the mammary gland, skin and stomach.
There is additional information that about 50% of cancer diseases are associated with overeating - an abundance of fat and overweight. People are usually concerned about the possible health effects of carcinogens (cancer-causing chemicals). This is especially true of various food additives, preservatives, flavor enhancers and odors, and other chemical compounds used in the production and processing of food. However, it is reliably known that only about 2% of all cases of cancer are associated with these substances.
At the same time, confirmation of the link between cancer and nutritional factors such as excess fat and lack of fiber is growing every day. Compared with the nutrition of the early 90s, the average person now receives 1/3 more fat and 1/3 less fiber with food. In those countries of the world where there is little fat intake, and high fiber, the incidence of colon cancer, mammary gland and prostate gland is insignificant. IN USA. Canada, where food is rich in fats and poor in fiber, the incidence of these types of cancer is much higher. Researchers have found, for example, that Japanese people living in Japan very rarely get these types of cancer. In Japan, fiber consumption is very high; fats, on average, take in the diet 15-20%. But if the Japanese move to America and go to the western style of nutrition and lifestyle, the incidence of these types of cancer in them increases dramatically and soon becomes the same as the rest of Americans.
Not all the questions have been answered yet, but it is known that cancer is associated with carcinogens by chemical irritants, which eventually cause cancer in the body. An example is bile acid. The more fat in food, the more the body needs to produce bile for its processing. In the intestinal tract, some of the bile acids can form carcinogenic substances. The irritating effect of these substances is the greater, the longer they remain in contact with the inner surface of the large intestine. This is where fiber comes to the scene. If it is not enough, the food moves slowly along the intestine; often it takes from 72 hours to 5 days. Cellulose absorbs water like a sponge. The resulting lump fills the intestinal lumen, literally pushes it apart and makes it actively promote food.
If your diet contains a sufficiently large amount of fiber, then food passes through the intestines for 24-36 hours.
It helps the large intestine. First, the time spent in the intestines of irritating harmful substances is reduced. Secondly, their concentration in the food lump decreases due to dilution with water, which fiber keeps.
Consumption of large amounts of fat inhibits the activity of important cells of the immune system. This effect has been extensively studied in relation to breast cancer; It is possible that its effect is manifested in other types of cancer.
Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The risk increases dramatically for those who still smoke. Being overweight increases the likelihood of breast, colon and prostate cancer. Contact with asbestos, toxic chemicals and non-smoking inhalation of cigarette smoke (so-called “passive smoking”) plays a certain role.
Only 4 lifestyle factors - do not smoke, do not abuse alcohol. sticking to high-fiber and low-fat vegetarian foods, and keeping your weight at the normal level, could prevent 80% of cancer cases in modern society.
But changing lifestyle is not as easy as swallowing a pill. This requires changing your habits. For example, reducing the amount of fat and cholesterol in the diet involves cooking more dishes without meat.
This can be learned by taking one to two days a week for vegetarian food. So you will have the opportunity to try out ways to prepare healthy food, gradually making a list of new recipes you like.
Drinking is a disrespect for life
Absurd death from diseases that a person voluntarily chooses. Drinking has always been a bad and shameful habit. Over the centuries-old history of mankind, millions of people died from this insidious vice. The main thing in the fight against it is prevention. The incidence of alcohol psychosis is recognized as the main marker of the severity of alcoholism in the population. In our region, it is 58.4 per 100 thousand population, which exceeds the average for Russia (43.1).
Proved a close relationship of low health indicators with alcoholism. Experts believe that if the consumption of pure alcohol per capita exceeds 8 liters per year, it is already very dangerous. According to the State Statistics Committee, in our country this figure is 14-15 liters.
Alcohol "contributes" to arterial hypertension, heart attack, sudden death from a rhythm disorder and heart failure, cancer, liver cirrhosis, mental disorders.
He is the cause of a large share of traffic accidents and accidents.
Recently, at the forum “Health of the Nation is the Basis of Russia's Prosperity”, the head of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Chief Sanitary Doctor Gennady Onishchenko emphasized that in recent years there has been a significant increase in the use of low-alcohol beverages and beer, teenagers are involved in the process and women of childbearing age, which is very sad.
Refreshing drinks containing alcohol are produced in a beautiful container and of various colors, resemble fruit juices, although they are not in the drink. They pose a serious threat to children, because they give the habit of alcohol. Over the past three years, its use among youth has tripled.
Harmful addiction poisons the life of the family. Perhaps the saddest statistic in recent years is the increase in the number of children with disabilities with irreversible mental disabilities caused by parental drinking.
Young people need guidance in order to make the right choice in favor of a healthy lifestyle. They will be helped by education, an honest, trustworthy source of information, support and approval of their elders, sports, hobbies, and volunteering.
But the most important is a good example of parents.
Throughout the articles, I urged to avoid refined foods that are high in calories and low in nutrients. Alcohol falls into their category: two cans of beer, for example, contain 300 "empty" calories
Of course, what we will be - a hopelessly drunk nation that uses cheap surrogates, or a European country with a civilized culture of alcohol consumption depends largely on government policy in this area. But for us, everything should be very clear in the choice - vodka or high-quality, meaningful life.
Throw the cigarette!
Modern scientific data include tobacco as a socially acceptable drug, since when it is used, there is no visible degradation of the individual. But dependence on cigarettes can be so great that some are not able to give it up even in the face of the threat of a deadly disease.
Meanwhile, more than 30 percent of deaths of men and 4 women in Russia are due to smoking. Almost all types of cancer in smokers are more common, and suffering from gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer among them more than 60 percent.
Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirth by a third, and heart attacks and strokes - one and a half times.
Dyspnea, fatigue, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis and leaching of calcium from the bones are the direct consequences of “friendship” with a cigarette.
If you stop smoking, the body immediately begins the recovery process. As harmful substances are removed, the risk of cardiovascular diseases is reduced. And although the process is slow, but irreversible.
Giving up a bad habit gives a feeling of victory, increases self-esteem, the ability to feel more subtly the taste of food, a feeling of freshness, breath, and improved health. Do not forget that this eliminates the risk of passive smoking for family members. The chances that your children will smoke will decrease. The positive list is increasing every year, as medical science reveals more and more facts related to the negative effects of tobacco. Therefore, the biggest service you can do to your body is to quit smoking and re-breathe clean air.
The first step in the fight against any bad habit is the decision to change. And with a serious attitude, you will get rid of her. And this means that the air will become fresher, and the food will be tastier, and the wallet will be thicker, and life will be longer and more pleasant!
From depression "pull" puppies
The leading factor affecting the health of a modern person is psycho-emotional stress: constant tension, endless stresses, conflict situations.
Scientists have shown that, on average, 40 percent of people have an organism that cannot withstand the modern pace of life. And in acute conflict situations, resistance to stress is observed only in every tenth.
Of course, in nature, there is always a struggle for a place under the sun. However, in the biological environment, where there are predators and prey, there is a law that all loads and tensions are sporadic. Going away from the chase, the victim can relax. But the person lives nowadays not in accordance with natural biorhythms, but in a rigid framework, when, in a short time, he must manage to complete the tasks set for him. He has no time to go to the theater, read a book, get out with his family for a walk. Not everyone can withstand such a rhythm, and during long-term tension, various disorders occur - the brain functions are disturbed, the immune system weakens and a whole bunch of diseases form.
To protect the psyche, follow the main rule: every overvoltage should be episodic. Try to prevent negative emotions from acting continuously and not becoming stagnant. It is important that they end on a positive note. Then the destructive effect of even a strongly pronounced emotion will be reduced to "no".
If you feel anxiety or tension, try to break the chain of experiences and switch to something pleasant. Effective in this case, physical activity. You can change the situation - go on nature, work in the country, go to a concert. A wonderful effect is communicating with pets. A funny puppy can “pull” you even out of deep depression.
Faced with troubles, think about what you want: get into the hospital with a heart attack or losslessly get out of the situation. It is a mistake to think that only medicine will save a person. A lot depends on himself - on what goals he sets, what priorities he chooses, how he treats others.
Efforts are needed - constant and significant
In the book “Thoughts on Health” Nikolai Amosov writes: “It is not nature that is to blame for most diseases, only man himself. Most often he suffers from laziness and greed, but sometimes from unreasonableness. Do not rely on medicine. It treats many diseases well, but it cannot make a person healthy. More than that: be careful not to be captured by the doctors! Sometimes they tend to exaggerate the weakness of a person and the power of their science, create imaginary diseases in people and issue bills of exchange, which they cannot pay. To become healthy, we need our own efforts, constant and significant. "
The World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not only as the absence of illness and disability. To maintain health, you must follow a few rules.
- Lead an active lifestyle, even 8 minutes of sports activities per day prolong life.
- Do not overeat, instead of the usual 2500 calories, be content with 1500. Thus, you will arrange the unloading of the cells and support their activity.
- Remember, the menu must match your age. With regular use of the liver and nuts, later the first wrinkles appear. People over 40 need selenium in cheese and kidneys, and beta carotene in carrots. After 45 Calcium keeps “in shape” bones, and magnesium - the heart. At 50, giving preference to fish, we protect the heart and blood vessels.
- Get rid of bad habits, their consequences are dangerous.
- Find a job that suits you. According to the French, the one who does not work looks 5 years older.
- One of the proven remedies for old age is love.
- Anyone who constantly reproaches himself, instead of saying that he is upset, and at times even argue, exchange opinion with others, is more susceptible to any diseases, including oncological diseases.
- Train your brain. Solve crosswords, learn languages. This slows down the process of age-related degradation of mental abilities, simultaneously activates the work of the heart, circulatory system and metabolism.
- Pamper yourself from time to time! Sometimes, despite all the recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, allow yourself a tasty morsel.
- Metabolism and the manifestation of age-related characteristics depend on the ambient temperature. Proved who sleeps at a temperature of 17-18 degrees, stays young longer.
- If symptoms of ill health occur, consult a doctor.
So, to become healthy, we need efforts, constant and significant. They say that health is happiness in itself. But it is easy to get used to it and stop noticing it. But the disease is certainly a misfortune. Shouldn't you fight for health?